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American Journal of Innovative Research & Applied Sciences
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  | ARTICLES | Am. J. innov. res. appl. sci. Volume 6,  Issue 6, Pages 258-270 (June 2018)
Research Article
 
American Journal of innovative
Research & Applied Sciences 
ISSN  2429-5396 (Online)
OCLC Number: 920041286
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| MAY VOLUME 6 | N° 6  | 2018 |
Authors Contact

*Correspondant author and authors Copyright © 2018:

| Nabila Rouahi 1 | Yazid Rouahi 2 | Malika Sabiri 2 | and | Mimoune Zouhdi 2 |

Affiliation.

1. Institut Supérieur des Professions infirmières et Techniques de Santé  | Tétouan | Morocco |
2. Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie  | Université Mohammed V, Rabat | Morocco |
This article is made freely available as part of this journal's Open Access: ID | Rouahi-ManuscriptRef.1-ajira300518 | 
ABSTRACT

Background:
Pain and discomfort linked to cancer and other diseases or disabilities constitute a public health problem. Many tools and approaches are used for the assessment of pain. Accurate and timely assessment of pain is essential for the efficient evaluation of pain treatments in chronic pain management. A wide variety of tools to assess acute and chronic pain exists. Instruments have been developed in diferent languages and approaches. Objectives: The aim of this study is to set the panel of iconic-based tools to assess pain and analyse their strengths and weaknesses. Methods : A bibliographic review was conducted on Pubmed, Scopus and Science Direct databases using ‘Iconic’, ‘Pictogram’, ‘Assessment’ and ‘Pain’ as key words. Eleven articles were found (figure 1) relevant for the topic in the three databases (PubMed =3, Scopus = 6, Science Direct= 2). Their contents were analyzed and synthesized in Table 1. Results:
We found eleven distinct questionnaires. The first class contains numeric-based tools as Iconic Pain Assessment Tool (IPAT), Pain-QuILT, Pain-QuILT-2 and the pictogram for breast cancer. These tools allow an accurate, exhaustive and continuous description of pain that could be saved on digital supports to evaluate cancer care programs. The second class contains paper-based tools as COOP/WONCA, SLAN and Iconic Interdisciplinary tool. These are used to assess pain and discomfort holistically in different clinical contexts. The third class is also constituted from paper-based questionnaires and contains instruments as ODEON for ophthalmic diseases, Pictogram of pain quality for Down syndrome, Pictogram for gastric discomfort and Pictorrino for disabilities linked to laryngectomized patients. This class allows a detailed description of discomfort in specific illness or disability where patients are unable or deficient in communicating verbally. Conclusions: The numeric-based questionnaires allows continuous and timely assessing and a secure recording of pain on a numeric database of the profiles integrating the quality, the intensity and the localization of pain for a great number of patients. The second class is applied to different contexts and contains tools giving detailed description on general health. The third class allows a detailed and accurate description of pain. It is applied specifically applied to Down Syndrome, laryngectomized patients, gastric or ophthalmic diseases.
Key words : Assessment, Iconic, Management, Pictogram, Pain, Diseases.


ICONIC APPROACH FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PAIN, DISCOMFORT OR PAIN MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS IN CANCER AND  
OTHER DISEASES

   | Nabila Rouahi 1 | Yazid Rouahi 2 | Malika Sabiri 2 | and | Mimoune Zouhdi 2 |.  Am. J. innov. res. appl. sci. 2018; 6(6):258-270.

    | PDF FULL TEXT |   | XML FILE |   | HTML FILE |  | Received | 30 May 2018 |  | Accepted | 20 June 2018 |  | Published | 24 June 2018 |