American Journal of Innovative Research & Applied Sciences
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  | ARTICLES | Am. J. innov. res. appl. sci. Volume 3,  Issue 2, Pages 470-475 (October 2016)
 
 
| November | VOLUME 3 | N° 2 | 2016 |
Research Article
  
VIEWING SURGICAL SITE WITH THREE CAMERAS IN LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY
    | Rositsa Bogdanova | Navaneeth Kamballur Kottayil | Bin Zheng | Anup Basu | and  |  Irene Cheng   |. Am. J. innov. res. appl. sci. 2016; 3(2):470-475.
  
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PDF FULL TEXT |        
|Received | 10 September 2016|          |Accepted | 30 September 2016|         |Published 07 November 2016 |


Authors Contact
Authors Copyright © 2015: | Rositsa Bogdanova 1 | Navaneeth Kamballur Kottayil 2 |Bin Zheng 1 |Anup Basu 2 | Irene Cheng 2 |

Authors Affiliation:

1. University of Alberta | Department of Surgery | Edmonton | Canada |

2. University of Alberta | Department of Computing Science | Edmonton | Canada |
This Article is made freely available as part of this journal's Open Access.ID: | Rositsa ManuscriptRef.1ajiras100916 |

ABSTRACT

Background: Laparoscopic Surgery (LS) poses visual challenges to surgeons when viewing the surgical sites through a single lens laparoscope. Adding additional cameras to the surgical site may provide extra visual cues. Objectives: We investigate how human operators scan over multiple scenes of surgical site and whether displaying multiple scenes can impair subjects’ performance compared to the conventional single camera setting. Methods: 20 university students were recruited to perform laparoscopic task in simulation under two viewing conditions, with a single camera, or with three cameras (front/top/side) on surgical site. Task time and gaze scanning patterns were recorded to examine whether the additional views provided visual guidance for task performance. Additionally, to understand the impact of gaze behaviors on performance, we compared the differences in scanning patterns between the fastest and slowest performers. Results: When the top view was available, subjects watched the top view an equal amount of time (48%) compared to the conventional (front) view (51%). The side view was rarely used (1 %). Total tasks time was not affected by adding multiple cameras (Single: 5.2 sec vs. Multiple 5.4 sec, P = 0.620). The fast and slow performers showed distinct eye behaviors; fast performers spent more time (73%) on the top view and shifted their gaze less frequently (970 count/trial) than slow performers (52% on top view, # of saccades 1577 count/trial). The fast performers executed shorter gaze fixation (430 ms) than their slower peers (540 ms, P = 0.628). Conclusions: Multiple view provided subjects with rich visual information to perceive the depth of the surgical sites. The revealed eye behavior difference between fast and slow performers could be used as behavior marker of surgical expertise which could help in designing new visualization systems to improve surgical performance.

Keywords: Laparoscopic Surgery, Depth perception, Multiple camera-views, Eye-tracking, Eye-movements 
American Journal of innovative
Research & Applied Sciences 
ISSN  2429-5396 (Online)
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